The Caucasus Mountains is a mountain in Eurasia lying between the Black and the Caspian Seas in the Caucasus region. It occupies parts of Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia, drifting mainly from northwest to southeast. The Caucasus Mountains are made from two separate ranges, the Greater Caucasus in the north and therefore the Lesser Caucasus in the south. additionally, some sources recognize a Middle Caucasus Range. Its highest peak is Mount Elbrus, at 18,510 feet (5,642 meters), in the Greater Caucasus range.

Historically, the Caucasus range of mountains has served as a geographic barrier at the convergence of the continents of Europe and Asia. Because the tectonic plate is geologically stable around this region, it’s been hard to tell the exact course of the continental borderline, causing the border to vary throughout history. While there continues to be disagreement over where the border lies in reference to the range, there’s a general acceptance of assigning the Caucasus to Asia because of the strong Asian influences throughout the region.

The climate of the Caucasus varies based on elevation and latitude location. for instance, the average temperature decreases as elevation rises. same thing with precipitation, which increases with elevation. there’s also more precipitation, including snowfall, on the western slopes of the mountains from the influence of the Black Sea.


Russians were familiar with the Caucasus as early as the reign of Ivan IV in the sixteenth century, but only under Catherine, the great was a calculated go into the region made (under the Viceroy of the Caucasus, Grigorii Potemkin). Shortly thereafter, Georgia (predominantly Christian) requested protection from Muslims to the south, and it had been annexed into the Russian Empire in 1801. Since Russia had to take care of communications across the Caucasus Mountains with Georgia, hostilities broke out between the Russians and the mountain peoples of the Caucasus. It took Russia into the 1860s to finally subdue resistance from the guerrillas.

Co-ordinates of Caucasus Mountains: 42.6366° N, 44.1576° E


Caucasus Mountains on World Map


Caucasus Mountains Local Map



The Caucasus is culturally diverse. a look at a political map of the region suggests that simple borders separate the political entities within the Caucasus, but really crossing from, say, Georgia to Chechnya involves traversing high mountain passes that are open only a part of the year or using one among many strategic tunnels. Such natural barriers mean that a lot of groups within the region have existed in isolation for millennia. In fact, this compact region with its population of around 20 million includes upwards of fifty ethnic groups, and its linguistic variety is second only to that of New Guinea. 


Some languages like Azerbaijani are members of the Turkic language family, and others like Armenian and Ossetian are a part of the Indo-European language family (which includes Russian and English). Most, including Chechen and Dagestani, are a part of three distinct language families found nowhere else in the world. This linguistic diversity is accompanied by religious and political variation. the main focus on Islam in current discussions of the Caucasus might leave the impression that the whole region is Muslim, and to make certain there are many Muslims there.

But many in nominally Muslim regions like Azerbaijan are quite secular, and Armenia and Georgia are Christian since the fourth century. In terms of political systems, the regions of the Caucasus range all the way from the brutal, Kremlin-backed, dictatorial regime in Chechnya to the slowly loosening authoritarian system in Azerbaijan, to a reasonably democratic Georgia, which recently celebrated the region’s first peaceful transition of political power after free and fair elections.


There are deep historical roots for almost everything within the Caucasus. When discussing Chechnya and Dagestan, Western commentators often refer to conflicts that followed the break-up of the Soviet Union in 1991. People from the region find this superficial, almost humorous, and instead, tend to analyze things from a much longer historical perspective. Historical roots within the region are indeed impressive: Petroglyphs from 10,000 years ago are found in Azerbaijan and Georgia is the site of the world’s first cultivation of grapes for wine, some 8,000 years ago. In “recent” medieval times the Caucasus was overrun by Arabs, Mongols, Persians, and Turks as they tried to take over this strategically important area. And for the past two centuries, Russia has been the main player within the region.

The peoples of the Caucasus have a reputation of being fiercely independent, and a few highland groups were never conquered—or even discovered—by invading powers. The result’s a set of competing for national narratives that reach much further back in time than what we are familiar with. In Georgia, for instance, the twelfth-century king “David the Builder” retains a living presence in politics. Any Georgian knows what supporters of President Misha Saakashvili mean when they call him “Misha the Builder.”


There are about three dozen different ethnic groups living within the Caucasus region. About two-thirds of them are often found in Russia in various numbers. Caucasus groups speak dozens of indigenous languages that are divided into northwestern and northeast groups. they all have written languages that use the Cyrillic alphabet.

the various groups of the Caucasus are organized in a crazy quilt across the valleys, mountains, and lowlands of the region. Sometimes one ethnic group will occupy one cluster of valleys and another ethnic group will occupy a neighboring cluster of valleys. Resources are often scared and therefore the arrangement causes tensions. Describing the case within the Caucasus, Polish journalist Ryszard Kapuscinski’s wrote, “One can’t move anyone without also moving someone else, without doing him injury.”

The people of the Caucasus region have traditionally been more loyal to their clans and families than they been to their region, ethnic group, or nation. The royal’s houses of Georgia and therefore the Caucasus are thought to own some Ethiopian blood.

Frederick Starr, chairman of the Central Asia-Caucasus Institute of Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies in Washington. Book: Highlanders: A Journey to the Caucasus in Quest of Memory by Yo’av Karny (Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2000); Book on Central Asia, Afghanistan, and therefore the Caucasus: The Dust of Empire: The Race for Mastery within the Asian Heartland by Karl E. Meyer (Century Foundation/Public Affairs, 2005)


The people of the Caucasus are divided int five major cultural groups: 1) Georgian groups within the western Caucasus, which are mostly Orthodox Christians: 2) Armenians within the south-central Caucasus, who follow their own branch of Christianity; 3) the Azerbaijanis within the east, who are Turkic-speaking and mostly Shiite Muslims; 4) the Northern Caucasus groups, a diverse group that contains groups just like the Circassians, Chechens, and Avars and 5) the Dagestan area, which contains over 50 different mostly-Muslim groups, including some that occupy one valley.

Caucasus people also can be divided into 1) lowlanders, descendants of steppe horse people; and 2) mountaineers, who have traditionally made their living raising livestock and moving between winter and summer pastures.

Linguistically the Caucasus is mind-boggling in its diversity. The North Caucasus languages are divided into three major groups. there’s some debate among linguists as to whether they are related to not and how much so. There are six major Turkic languages, including Kumyk and Azerbaijani. In Georgia, eight major dialects are spoken. Dagestan is home to 30 major languages and dozens of more dialects.

Each ethnic group and nationality within the Caucasus has its own language and culture. the massive groups—the Azerbaijanis, Armenians, and Georgians—have their own countries. Mid-size groups, with a half-million members approximately, just like the Ossetians, the Circassians, and therefore the Avars occupy regions and sometimes have their own republic within Russia or another country. Little known people like the 200-member Ginukh, Akhwakh, and Lak occupy single valleys. Attempts to assimilate the people of the Caucasus have largely been unsuccessful.


Caucasus societies are strongly tribal and patriarchal often with strict taboos concerning the ladies. Among some weird customs found among the Caucasus, groups is that the ritual of kissing or touching of the breast of unrelated women in order to be accepted into her clan as an honorary member. In some parts of the Caucasus, brides are still kidnapped. Traditional customs were minimized somewhat by Soviet education, collectivization, and urbanization but are experienced some revival since the collapse of Communism.


Divisions between men and ladies are often very strict and obligatory. Men and ladies often sleep in different parts of the house. Traditionally, men have done the heavy work like plowing, threshing, transporting the harvest, maintaining the and terraces, driving livestock. Women did most everything else: the household chores, raising children, cooking, and fieldwork like weeding, picking fruit, and cutting hay. As a rule, the further east one travels within the Caucasus the fewer freedoms women have.

Villages have traditionally been run by chiefs and councils of elders. In Muslim areas, the villager’s elders often act in conjunction with Muslim law as interpreted by Muslim judges called qadi. Disputes and a few other concerns are settled through adat (customary law).


The history of the Caucasus region could also be divided by geography into the history of the Northern Caucasus (Ciscaucasia), historically within the sphere of influence of Scythia and of Southern Russia (Eastern Europe), and that of the Southern Caucasus (Transcaucasia; Caucasian Albania, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan) within the sphere of influence of Persia, Anatolia and (for a really brief time) Assyria.

After the dissolution of the Kingdom of Urartu (c. 590 BCE) and up to including the early-19th century, Persia mostly controlled the Southern Caucasus and a region of the Northern Caucasus (Dagestan). In 1813 and 1828 by the Treaty of Gulistan and therefore the Treaty of Turkmenchay respectively, Persians ceded the Southern Caucasus and Dagestan to Imperial Russia.[1] Russia conquered and annexed the rest of the Northern Caucasus within the course of the 19th century within the Caucasian Wars (1817–1864).


The Northern Caucasus became the scene of intense fighting during the Second world war. Nazi Germany attempted to capture the Caucasus region of the Soviet Union in 1942 by a two-pronged attack towards both the western bank of the Volga (intended to seize the town of Stalingrad) and southeast towards Baku, a huge center of oil production. Some parts of the Northern Caucasus fell under German occupation, but the Axis invasion eventually faltered because it did not accomplish either goal, and Soviet soldiers drove the Germans back west following the Battle of Stalingrad (1942–1943).

Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia became independent nations. The Caucasus region has become the setting of territorial disputes within the post-Soviet era, resulting in the establishment of partially recognized states of Artsakh, Abkhazia, and South Ossetia.


The greater part of Caucasia originated within the vast structural downwarp in the Earth’s crust called the Alpine geosyncline, dating from the late Oligocene epoch (about 25 million years ago), and therefore the region thus reflects a number of similar structural characteristics because of the younger mountains of Europe. Northern and central Ciscaucasia have a platform like construction, with a foundation of folded structures dating from the Hercynian orogeny early within the Carboniferous period (i.e., about 345 million years ago).

Southwestern and southeastern Ciscaucasia lie on the margins of a massive downfold within the Earth’s surface that arose later within the Alpine orogeny, producing, concurrently, broad subsidence on the lower courses of the Kuban and Terek rivers. The surface of most of Ciscaucasia consists of Cenozoic rock (i.e., less than 65 million years old; on the Stavropol Upland, which was uplifted within the late Miocene epoch (about 11 to five .3 million years ago), there are strata of folded, platform-like structures.


Structurally the Greater Caucasus represents an excellent anticline (unfold) uplifted at the margin of the Alpine geosyncline about 25 million years ago and subsequently altered by fresh cycles of erosion and uplift. Hard, crystalline, metamorphosed rocks like schists and gneisses, also as granites that predate the Jurassic period (i.e., are older than 200 million years), are exposed at the core of the western sector, while softer, clayey schists and sandstones of Early and Middle Jurassic origin (about 200 to 160 million years ago) have emerged within the east. The spurs of the Greater Caucasus are composed of younger limestones, sandstones, and marls.

The Kolkata and Kura-Aras lowlands are both structural depressions linked to the Alpine geosyncline; the previous is related to the formation of the Black Sea, the latter to that of the Caspian. within the Kolkhida Lowland, the whole surface of deposits laid down less than 25 million years ago is broken, at the foot of the mountains, by the protrusion of slightly older sedimentary rocks. Younger rock also underlies the Kura-Aras Lowland.

The structures of the Lesser Caucasus, the Talish Mountains, the Dzhavakhet Range, and therefore the Armenian Highland likewise originated from folds uplifted from the Alpine geosyncline. Whereas the western sector of the Lesser Caucasus and therefore the Talish within the far southeast are formed chiefly of deposits laid down about 50 million years ago during the downwarp episode of the geosyncline, the central and eastern sectors of the Lesser Caucasus contains sedimentary strata with areas of intrusive volcanic rock that’s at least twice as old. Geologically recent volcanism and contact metamorphism (the intrusion of molten material into preexisting strata) everywhere have played an excellent role in shaping the landscape. The folded base of the Dzhavakhet Range and of the Armenian Highland, for instance, is masked by volcanic debris from eruptions that occurred within the Cenozoic era, but to the east much older rocks emerge between the center course of the Aras and therefore the latitude of Lake Sevan.



Caucasus Mountains in The Bible:

The Bible says that the Caucasus is that the dwelling place of “Gog” – that great and foreboding angelic prince the Scriptures say will initiate the momentous events of the “End of Days.”

Caucasus Mountains in The Qur’an:

The book Iranians in the Qur’an and Traditions by Ali Abtahi mentions that a wall with characteristics mentioned within the verses of the Quran exists within the Dariel passage within the mountain chain, which there’s even a stream near that is termed “Saeres” by the locals.

Length of Caucasus Mountains:

The total length of the Caucasus Mountains is 1200 kilometres (750miles); middle of the system is relatively slim, however its western and Japanese ends have widths of a hundred and sixty kilometres (100 mi) or additional. This chain of mountains cowl a region of 477,488 sq. kilometers (184,359 sq. miles).


Europe’s Highest Mountain:

Mount Elbrus is the highest mountain in the whole of Europe is covering 5,642 m (18,510 ft) above sea level in the Caucasus. Elbrus is 832 m (2,730 ft) bigger than Monte Bianco.

Snowfall of Caucasus Mountains:

The Caucasus Mountain range is best known for the high quantity of snowfall, though several areas that are situated in the lower region does not get much snowfall as compaered to the higher regions.

Caucasus Mountains as World Heritage Site: 

The Western Caucasus includes a natural UNESCO World Heritage Site comprising the extreme western edge of the Caucasus Mountains. As stated by the UNESCO specialists, it’s the only large mountain area in Europe that has not experienced significant human impact.


Flaura and Fauna in Caucasus Mountains:

The Caucasus Hotspot is home to about 6,400 plant species, over 25 percent are restricted to the region. There are 17 endemic genera of plants here, nine of which are associated with high mountain ecosystems. The region also harbors an interesting concentration of economically important plants, particularly wild crop relatives like wheat, rye, and barley, also as nuts and fruits like walnuts, apricots, and apples.



The Caucasus is a mountainous area nestled between the Black Sea and also the Caspian, consisting of southern Russia, Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan. This transitional region features a foothold in both Eastern Europe and Western Asia but is usually viewed as a part of modern Europe. Covered in a number of the world’s most stunning alpine landscapes, Caucasus is home to Mount Elbrus, the highest mountain peak in Europe.

In some ways, Caucasus is like the Balkans: it’s a patchwork of ethnolinguistic groups, sits at the intersection of Christian and Muslim cultures, and has suffered ethnic instability for most of the 1990s and early 2000s. nowadays, these lingering geopolitical issues are strategic and long-term in nature, so that they don’t ordinarily affect the day-to-day safety of tourists, which may vary from country to country.

Today the Caucasus is an emerging tourist destination but this, too, varies by area. Although Russia receives more visitors than the other country within the region, only a little fraction of this vast country is in the Caucasus. Among countries entirely within the Caucasus, as of 2015, Georgia leads the pack in terms of the number of tourists received.




Tbilisi, formerly Tiflis, capital of the Republic of Georgia, on the Mtkvari (Kura) River at its dissection of the Trialeti (Trialetsky) and Kartli (Kartliysky, or Kartalinian) ranges. Founded in 458 (in some sources, 455), when the capital of the Georgian kingdom was transferred there from Mtskheta, the town had a strategic position, controlling the route between western and eastern Transcaucasia. 

It absolutely was often captured and sacked and knew many masters: the Persians within the 6th century, the Byzantine Empire, and therefore the Arabs within the 7th. In 1122 David IV (the Builder) of Georgia captured Tbilisi and restored it as a capital, but in 1234 it fell to the Mongols, and in 1386 it had been sacked by Timur.


The Turks captured the town on several occasions, and in 1795 it was burned to the ground by the Persians. In 1801 Tbilisi was captured by the Russians, who improved its communications by building the Georgian Military Highway across the Greater Caucasus from Vladikavkaz to Tbilisi. In 1872 it was linked by rail to Poti on the Black Sea and in 1883 to Baku on the Caspian Sea. In 1921 it was made the capital of the Georgian republic.


Arkhyz may be a village within the natural depression of the Bolshoy Zelenchuk stream, within the Republic of Karachay–Cherkessia, bigger Caucasus, Russia, regarding seventy kilometer landlocked from the Black Seashore. The trendy village was based in 1923 close to the confluence of the Arkhyz and Pshish rivers. Arkhyz may be a well-liked toured destination. The mountain resort of Arkhyz is found in Karachaevo-Cherkessia, within the region of the Arkhyz gorge.

The resort is enclosed by high, steep mountain ranges. The Arkhyz region is a component of the Teberda Reserve. The distinctive mountainous landscapes and lots of lakes have contributed to the event of ecological commercial enterprise, sport and horse riding. The resort conjointly provides numerous opportunities for mountain climbing and rafting. You’ll see the traditional settlements, ancient temples and different attractions within the neck of the woods of the village of Nizhny Arkhyz. Over one year of holidaymakers come back to the resort with their friends, however most of the guests historically opt for Arkhyz for family vacation, the share of such tourists is forty sixth. This is often a consequence of the friendly and positive atmosphere established at the resort, its openness for kids and beginners in sport.

‘Arkhyz is that the best option for exploring the Alpine skiing: tourists can realize here swish mountains with a cushty height distinction, a range of pistes with high-quality snow cowl, a section for beginners with a separate chair tramway, a children’s village and a pair of.5 kilometers of pistes wherever evening sport is working. One in every of the simplest ski instructors faculty in Russia is working there, whose employees is specially trained for teaching beginners.


Azerbaijan, the state and former Soviet republic, is delimited by the Caspian Sea and range that span Asia and Europe. Its capital, Baku, is famous for its medieval walled heart. At intervals the heart lies the Palace of the Shirvanshahs, a royal retreat qualitative analysis to the fifteenth century, and also the centuries-old stone Maiden Tower, that dominates the town skyline. Additionally to its varied and sometimes stunning tract, Azerbajdzhan offers a mix of traditions and trendy development.

The individuals of its remoter areas retain several distinctive people traditions, however the lives of its inhabitants are a lot of influenced by fast modernization, characterised by industrial enterprise, the event of power resources, and also the growth of the cities, within which over 0.5 the individuals currently live. Business dominates the economy, and more-diversified pursuits have supplemented the exploitation of oil, of that Azerbajdzhan was the world’s leading producer at the start of the twentieth century. Fine horses and roe continue as a number of the lot of distinctive ancient exports of the republic.

One in every of Azerbaijan’s most noted sites is Yanar Dağ (or “Burning Mountain“), a natural glowing fireplace burning on an incline on the Caspian Sea. Faithful its name, the mountain has been blazing for a minimum of sixty five years. The most faith in Azerbajdzhan is Islam, though’ Azerbajdzhan is that the most profane country within the Muslim world. Estimates embrace ninety six.9% (CIA, 2010) and ninety nine.2% (Pew center, 2006) of the population distinguishing as Muslim. Most Shi’a area unit adherents of orthodox Ithna Ashari faculty of Shi’a Islam. Additionally to its varied and sometimes stunning tract, Azerbajdzhan offers a mix of traditions and trendy development.

The individuals of its remoter areas retain several distinctive people traditions, however the lives of its inhabitants are a lot of influenced by fast modernization, characterised by industrial enterprise, the event of power resources, and also the growth of the cities, within which over 0.5 the individuals currently live. Business dominates the economy, and more-diversified pursuits have supplemented the exploitation of oil, of that Azerbajdzhan was the world’s leading producer at the start of the twentieth century. Fine horses and roe continue as a number of the lot of distinctive ancient exports of the republic.


Yerevan, Armenia’s capital, is marked by grand Soviet-era design. The Matenadaran library, housing thousands of Ancient Greek and Armenian manuscripts, dominates its main avenue. Republic sq. is that the city’s core, with musical water fountains and columned government buildings. The Nineteen Twenties History depository of Asian nation on the square’s Japanese aspect contains archaeological objects sort of a circa-3500-B.C. animal skin shoe.

In terms range locations, Asian nation is that the second stop within the trip. You’ll enter Asian nation via Georgia. The capital town of Asian nation, capital may be a place wherever you’ll want defrayment some tranquil and peaceful time. The pink homes, blooming flowers, wide boulevards, and a slope roofs offer the total place a typical European feel. There are a unit several spirited streets, cafes, museums, and markets which provides this town a definite attractiveness and charm. It’s same that the simplest thanks to explore an area is on foot which stands true for capital. Move to Republic sq. or pay it slow at the city’s ancient neighbourhood referred to as Kond.

The Cafesjian depository of Art are some things to not be incomprehensible as a result of its totally different form of design and conjointly for the humanities and artefacts displayed there. The read of Mt. Ararat from the highest of the cascade are persistent. Buy Caucasus carpets at Vernissage market, style Lavash, a neighbourhood delicacy and drink water from pul-pul-ak, beverage fountains that originate to the 1500s. The town boasts of over five hundred outside cafes that area unit simply good to relax and unwind once you get tired when walking down the town. Because the capital of historic and culturally wealthy Asian nation, capital incorporates a ton to supply to its guests.

The town is thought for its squares, parks, historic monuments, and delicious dolma, simply to call a couple of its attractions. Asian nation is really value a visit, its history, numerous landscape, Monasteries, food it’s really is value a visit. The start of the month of cold is characterised with significant showers, like April. Thus, the simplest time to go to capital is from late could to early Gregorian calendar month. This point of year, the weather is comfy before the warmth sets in, creating it a perfect time to explore this place.


Dombay is associate urban neighbourhood (a resort settlement) below the executive jurisdiction of the city of republic significance of Karachayevsk within the Karachay-Cherkess Republic, Russia. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 657. Dombay is settled at intervals the Teberda Nature Reserve and may be a well-liked toured destination. Dombay is popularly called a ski center. Nowadays Domaby attracts ton of tourists as a result of the ability of sport and Hiking trails. One will fancy paragliding and sport conjointly here.

What adds to the attraction of this place is natural fantastic thing about range. The realm attracts individuals for its sport and hiking trails and natural fantastic thing about the range. The settlement is found at the elevation of 1,630 meters (5,350 ft) higher than water level, with its sport space occupying the slopes of Mount Mussa Achitara, between 1,800 meters (5,900 ft) and 3,200 meters (10,500 ft) higher than water level. The name of the very best mountain during this space is Dombay-Ulgen (4,046 m) which means “killed bison” in Karachai language.

Dombay is one in every of the centers of recreation and sports, a well-liked mountain climbing, ski and toured center. The slopes area unit wide and quite flat, however there are extreme tracks, likewise as opportunities for free ride and off-piste sport. The well-developed infrastructure at intervals the resort suggests that tourists will relax and have interaction in mountain sport with a wonderful level of comfort. For the convenience of guests, a compartment has been designed, ski slopes area unit well-equipped, and equipment is accessible for rent.

Excursion walking routes mean you’ll absolutely fancy the glorious mountain scenery and learn several fascinating facts regarding the realm. Diversion in Dombai quite a bit, particularly within the summer. As diversion will be enjoyed at one in every of the ski lifts, steam bathtub or steam bath, rent a Quad bike or ride horses. Offers rafting (from 800 rubles). You’ll move to Cherkessk in one in every of the 2 thermal springs (surcharge). Within the evening you’ll sit in one in every of the bars or cafes, however discos with trendy music no.


Essentuki may be a town in Stavropol Krai, Russia, situated at the bottom of the range. The town is a depot within the Mineralnye Vody—Kislovodsk branch and is found forty-three kilometers southwest of Mineralnye Vody and seventeen kilometers west of Pyatigorsk. Essentuki maybe a resort situated within the Stavropol Territory, seventeen kilometers from the town of Pyatigorsk. The character is picturesque and vibrant here.

Additionally, to medical and spa treatments, the town incorporates a ton of diversion facilities: cafes and restaurants, nightclubs and discos, parks and museums, and even jump. At the top of August, Essentuki celebrates its birthday, and you’ll see people festivities, air shows with flight figures, and fountain shows. Within the town, there are a unit variant park areas like conclusion Park and medicative Park.

You’ll conjointly swim and lie on the beach at the massive Lake. Noted in Soviet times, Essentuki continues to be one in every of Russia’s known drinking water brands. The quantity of Wimm-Bill-Dann producing facilities has currently reached twenty four.


Pyatigorsk may be a town in southern Russia. Cable cars visit the height of Mount Mashuk. On the mountain’s Mikhailovsky spur, the circa-1831 wind harp collapsible shelter plays harp music. Nearby, the 19th-century Tsvetnik Park has improved gardens and therefore the writer Gallery, a colored-glass collapsible shelter that hosts concerts. The State depository letter of the alphabet writer, former residence of the author Mikhail writer, commemorates his life. Pyatigorsk is that the largest town within the region.

Here, you’ll see Mount Beshtau. From the peak of its peaks, you’ll get pleasure from fabulous bird’s-eye views: most the resort cities, a lake, a sequence of covering peaks of the most Caucasian mountains. There are a unit quite forty mineral springs, differing in chemical composition and water temperature. It lies on the Podkumok watercourse within the northern foothills of the Caucasus. It’s long been a spa notable for its light climate and mineral springs. The climate is characterised by gentle winters and hot summers. The common temperature in January is minus three.8 degrees Celsius, in July – and 21.1 degrees Celsius.

Pyatigorsk town Day is widely known on the second Sunday of Sept. Since its instauration, Pyatigorsk resort was visited by such notable folks as poet, Lermontov, Glinka, Tolstoy, Griboyedov, Belinsky, Pirogov, Gorky, Shalyapin. Pyatigorsk encompasses a sizable amount of universities, about 40,000 students study at them. That’s why Pyatigorsk is additionally called the town of scholars. In 2010 it had been named the capital of the freshly created North Caucasus administrative division.

Pyatigorsk traveller infrastructure includes quite thirty resorts and spa facilities, dozens of travel firms, organizations, and hotels. The town and close space have an excellent traveller potential and within the long run will vie with the leading European spas and health resorts. additionally to the health, eco-resort and recreational business, Pyatigorsk resort has wonderful facilities for the historical and cultural, archeologic, cultural and depository, pilgrimage, scientific, sports, youth, walking, cycling, equestrian, hunting, extreme, mountain, ascent and alternative kinds of business and tours. Pyatigorsk (along with Nalchik) is that the start line of hiking and ascent routes within the Central Caucasus.


Mount Elbrus is that the highest mountain in Europe. Because the highest peak within the Caucasus, the dormant volcano rises 5,642 m higher than water level, and is that the highest strato volcano in continent, and therefore the tenth-most outstanding peak within the world. Elbrus may be a two-peak extinct volcano. the peak of the western peak is 5642 m higher than water level, whereas the jap one is 5621 m. Mount Elbrus’ prominence, a live off however distinct a mountainous from near peaks is 15,554 feet (4,741 m), creating it the tenth most outstanding mountain within the world.

A complete space of fifty three sq. miles (138 sq. km) of Elbrus is roofed by twenty two glaciers that feed the Kuban watercourse and a few of the origin of the Terek. Elbrus may be a major centre for mountain climbing and business within the Caucasus region. In 1964 an in depth traveller and mountain climbing base was opened, with large-scale sporting facilities. July and August usually have the foremost stable weather. The mountain is upcountry, set just about midway on the Caucasus vary at the southern border of Russia, between the Caspian and Black Seas.

These 2 large bodies of water impact the wind and precipitation on Elbrus, however the summer months supply the simplest time to climb. Even within the summer, temperatures at the hours of darkness average minus eight C (15 degrees F) however in winter temperatures at the upper altitudes will drop to minus thirty C throughout the day. The climate on Elbrus is dominated principally by the wet western lies and therefore the altitude of the mountain, though the influence of the winds area unit tempered by the near mountains.

The realm is formally classified as arctic climate. The Caucasus vary acts as a barrier to Elbrus against the northerlies, whereas heat winds from the Mediterranean blow warm winds from the South. Do not underestimate the weather on Elbrus, its unpredictable and even within the stable summer months of July and August it’s attainable to expertise a large variation, from a benign calm day trip to an extremely cold, windy expertise with low visibility. Equally the snowpack may be arduous ne’er with ice patches on the exposed slopes to sections in deep soft snow.



Batumi, a sea resort and port town, is that the capital of the Georgian republic of Adjara. Batumi Avenue encompasses a city district promenade with a park and beach. The 130m-high Alphabetic Tower, adorned with Georgian script, encompasses a coast observation deck. The recent city district is lined with restored 19th-century buildings. North of the town, Batumi facility showcases flora from round the world.

Batumi is sort of not like the other town in Georgia and though its location may be a very little out on a limb (more thereon later), its most actually price visiting and offers a desirable distinction to alternative, additional ancient, destinations within the country. Batumi has undergone a forceful modification in recent years. Today, guests to the present trendy town will get pleasure from several attractions, international hotels, an excellent eating scene and busy nightlife. Although Batumi has additional trendy buildings currently, it’s still managed to stay its charm, class and relaxed atmosphere. Here are a unit the simplest things for you to visualize and waste this sea resort. The romantic image of ships departure from the harbor is best seen from Batumi pier. Batumi voters name this place coast Park-Boulevard.


It surrounds the town on its ocean border for eight klick. It’s in the slightest degree times terribly huddled. This is often the foremost widespread place for each locals and guests of the capital. There stands the town image – the Dolphin with a palm branch. Dolphins frolicking in Batumi harbor all year spherical, became the integral a section the resort image. The town beach is next to the avenue. The beaches in Batumi and its vicinities area unit stony while not sand. To the east from the beach there are a unit theatres, cinemas, restaurants, cafes with nice food and alternative entertainments.

The residential quarters of Batumi area unit seen from afar thanks to their rainbow coloring. The matter is that every house there’s painted with bound colour. Batumi is additionally undergoing a construction boom, with new hotels and tower blocks reworking its skyline in recent years, notwithstanding the restored charm of its original missy époque design from a century ago is tough to beat. July and August area unit supremely busy here, however the city has atmosphere year-around, with May, June and Sept additionally wonderful times to go to.


A submission from African nation says the name Sochi suggests that “Only God” and is of Nigerian origin. Sochi, a Russian city on the ocean, is known as a summer beach resort, and was host of the 2014 Winter Olympic Games. Its parks embody the palm-filled installation. It’s additionally notable for 20th-century classical buildings just like the columnar Winter Theatre. Jangly Sochi Park can be a 1, 937-sq.-km protected house among the shut vary of mountains.

Sochi is thought for an oversized quite attractions, every natural and historical-cultural: mountain canyons and underground caves, relict forests and nature reserves, waterfalls and lakes, cottages of celebrated of us and museums – the list is endless. Once you’ve got spent all day exploring Sochi you cannot miss your chance to experience Sochi’s night life. A good looking sunset at the construction at the Akhun Mountain will take your breath away. Admire a picturesque scan of the complete city of big Sochi, the sea, the foremost Ridge of the Caucasus, Krasnaya Polyana and thus the Olympic Park. Provides a glance at the Olympic Capital of Russia from the Mountain thus find yourself at the heart of night events at the coast.


This sure as shooting one amongst the highest ten Cities in Russia familiar for its Nightlife. Sochi is known for a large type of attractions, each natural and historical-cultural: mountain canyons and underground caves, relict forests and nature reserves, waterfalls and lakes, cottages of notable folks and museums – the list is endless. One amongst such places is that the notable Sochi facility. Whereas in Sochi you’ll continuously combine the swaggering experiences and sport activities with quiet vacation and excursions to historical and cultural sites.

Besides ecological traveling and considering such beauties because the thirty three waterfalls and sand beaches of the region, in Sochi you’ll visit varied historical sites from the Soviet times (Old Rail Station that’s world-known a part of UNESCO heritage, Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili summer house depository, etc.), and explore the native flora and fauna in facility and water parks.



Mtskheta may be a town in Mtskheta-Mtianeti province of Georgia. one amongst the oldest cities of Georgia and its former capital, it’s set roughly twenty kilometres north of Tbilisi, at the confluence of the Mtkvari and Aragvi rivers. Mtskheta was the traditional capital of Kartli, the East Georgian Kingdom from the third century B.C. to the fifth century AD, and was conjointly the placement wherever Christianity was announced because the official faith of Georgia in 337. To date, it still remains the headquarters of the Georgian Orthodox and Apostolic Church.

Mtskheta has continually unbroken its standing as Georgia’s religious capital, and its Svetitskhoveli Cathedral continues to be the setting for vital ceremonies of the Georgian Orthodox Catholic Church. With Associate in nursing beguiling setting wherever the Mtkvari and Aragvi Rivers meet, Mtskheta makes a straightforward and pleasant pleasure trip from Tbilisi. The favourable natural conditions, its strategic location at the intersection of trade routes, and its shut relations with the empire, the Persian Empire, Syria, Palestine, and Byzantium, generated and stirred the event of Mtskheta and crystal rectifier to the mixing of various cultural influences with native cultural traditions. When the sixth century AD, once the capital was transferred to Tbilisi, Mtskheta continued to retain its leading role mutually of the vital cultural and religious centres of the country.


The Holy Cross religious residence of Jvari, Svetitskhoveli Cathedral and Samtavro religious residence square measure key monuments of medieval Georgia. This churches embody the remains of earlier buildings on an equivalent sites, still because the remains of ancient wall paintings. The complicated of the Svetitskhoveli Cathedral within the centre of the city includes the cathedral church, the palace and therefore the gates of the Katolikos Melchizedek that start the eleventh century, engineered on the location of earlier churches qualitative analysis back to the fifth century.

The symmetric cathedral is topped with a high cupola over the crossing, and there square measure remains of vital wall paintings within the interior. The made carven decoration of the elevations dates from numerous periods over its long history. Mtskheta municipality is distinguished by its abundance of cultural monuments and variety of nature. Within the region square measure set Tsodoreti and Mukhatgverdi Lakes. You’ll be able to set up attention-grabbing routes on the Saguramo Reserve and Mtskheta ridges, wherever you may get pleasure from lovely forests and views.

One of the popular routes is the Mtskheta-Armazi defense path. Throughout this straightforward, one-day excursion you may realize each various, lovely sights still as monuments of historical-cultural significance. Mtskheta municipality has several vital monuments of various periods, with distinctive design and mural patterns of historical significance.


Lake Sevan may be a massive, high-altitude lake in Jap Armenia. It’s celebrated for its beaches. Attack a slim solid ground, the Sevanavank religious residence has two stone churches qualitative analysis to the ninth century. To the south, Hayravank religious residence overlooks the lake from a rocky outcrop. Noratus graveyard has many graven stone khachkar memorials. Odzaberd may be a ruined defence engineered by the Urartian civilization within the eighth century B.C.

Within the Fifties, Soviet planners irrigated the close Hrazdan watercourse, inflicting Lake Sevan’s water level to drop 20m. The drop uncovered forts, homes and artefacts qualitative analysis back 2000 years, however combined with overfishing and biodegradable pollution selling, conjointly crystal rectifier environmentalists to declare the lake is on the brink of destruction. Lake Sevan’s beaches square measure very talked-about with Russian tourists and clamant day-trippers. For a few tranquillity, head to the Jap facet to go to Wishup Shore or the Tufenkian Avan Marak Tsapatagh edifice. With Lake Sevan seizing over five-hitter of Armenia’s surface, there’s quite ton happening around its in depth shores.

It is a bit solid ground, that was once Associate in Nursing island, is home to a ninth century church known as Sevanavank while the curious Noratus graveyard and solitary Hayravank religious residence square measure within sight. The most effective method within which to urge around in Armenia is by driving a rental automotive, which might be employed in capital of Armenia. We have a tendency to we have a tendency tore really on a road trip around each Georgia and Armenia thus we rented our automotive in Tbilisi, Georgia and crossed the border into Armenia with it. You’ll be able to simply embody a keep in Lake Sevan on your thanks to capital of Armenia from the border or on the method back.

If you plan doing this, remember that you {just} ought to get further insurance just when crossing the border into Armenia. Don’t pay the primary person giving insurance, you’ll be able to realize higher deals if you are taking it slow to visualize out completely different costs at the retailers any down the road. The recognition of Lake Sevan is partially because of the simple accessibility of the lake from capital of Armenia. Whereas several of the opposite a lot of remote components of Armenia have little commercial enterprise infrastructure, Lake Sevan is well equipped for tourists, several of whom square measure native.

The foremost obvious reason to return to Lake Sevan is to urge off from the summer heat in alternative components of the country. Lake Sevan may be a ton cooler than capital of Armenia being nearly doubly as high in elevation and therefore provides an awfully refreshing retreat from the capital town which might be each stifling and oppressive throughout the summer months. There square measure variety of water primarily based activities happening around Lake Sevan. You’ll be able to swim within the cool blue waters of the lake, worship the sun on the general public beaches or jet-ski and wind-surf on the lake. Boat rides on the lake are on the market if you’d prefer to expertise completely different components of it.


Gudauri may be a resort set on the south-facing highland of the larger Caucasus formation in Georgia. Georgia’s most well liked resort, Gudauri is that the highest city on the Georgian Military Hwy and at the moment a rather seedy place undergoing an enormous construction boom. Its recently improved and enlarged facilities square measure extremely rated by foreigners World Health Organization come back here for reasonable athletics, though’ the city itself abundant} from charming; an extended winding road with none obvious centre or much coming up with.

The 57km of pistes (black, red, blue and green) square measure served by a car and 5 chairlifts, rising from 1990m to 3285m. Commonly the ski season lasts from shortly before Christmas to Apr, with the most effective snow in January and Gregorian calendar month. Chair lifts (Doppelmayr, Austria) and a gondola line (POMA, France) build on the market athletics and snowboarding on the southern slopes (70 kilometer certified trails of varied problem levels) at the altitude from 3275 m to 2000 m, with altitude distinction of 1275 meters. Ski rental square measure set in many places: within the village of Lower Gudauri, and within the higher Gudauri, close to the gondola station.

Freeride is feasible each on the paths close to the ski lifts and within the neighboring space on the western and Jap slopes of the mountains Chrdili, Bidara and therefore the northern slopes of Mt. Sadzele (Kobi Gorge). Vasoconstrictor seekers even have the possibility to do paragliding, speed riding (an extreme mixture of athletics and paragliding) and heli-skiing. Young and chop-chop developing winter sports resort of Gudauri is found on the southern slopes of the mountain range in Georgia, close to Stepantsminda District, on the noted Georgian Military main road close to the Cross Pass, at Associate in nursing altitude of 2,200 meters on top of water level. Gudauri is found one hundred twenty kilometres north from the capital, Tbilisi. You’ll be able to reach Gudauri from Tbilisi in 2 hours either by automotive or in 4-5 hours by transport.

The ski season starts from Dec to Apr. season begins from twelve Dec – ten March, and therefore the low season from eleven March to fifteen Apr. Snow on the slopes reaches up to a median depth of 2-3 meters. The weather is usually heat and sunny, despite the very fact that the resort is found high within the mountains, on top of from the wood line. Gudauri has concerning fifty kilometer of trails with completely different problem levels. Professionals will get pleasure from slalom slopes, large slalom, super large slalom and downhill slopes.

All tracks square measure certified by the International Ski Federation. Gudauri is legendary for its off-piste opportunities down the unspoiled virgin slopes. The deep powdery snow, lack of stones, and marginal risk of avalanches created Gudauri quite Mecca of freeriding. The resort is additionally enclosed by massive areas with off-piste slopes for these sorts of riding, because the backcountry and heli-skiing.


Mestia may be a highland town let in northwest Georgia, at Associate in nursing elevation of 1,500 metres within the Caucasus Mountain. Mestia, the most regional center of Zemo (Upper) Svaneti, is located 456 kilometre from Georgia’s capital town, Tbilisi, and is 1,500 meters on top of water level. It the place to begin for many visits to Svaneti, with a spread of hotels, guesthouses and native travel services, and makes a convenient base for exploring the realm. From the middle of Mestia it’s attainable to hike up to the glaciers at the foot of mount Ushba, or take horses into the pristine alpine meadows.

New ski resorts Hatsvali and Tetnuldi attract the eye of winter sports lovers World Health Organization square measure trying to find the new places and challenges. Tourists curious about non secular history can realize many samples of wall paintings, frescoes and icons from the center Ages within the churches around Mestia. Among Mestia, the Church of martyr contains healthy crosses and icons from the XII century. In addition, Pusdi Church still contains fragments of XIII century wall paintings.

The oldest of the hamlets, with most of the towers, square measure on top of the watercourse on the northern facet of town: Lekhtagi within the northwest, and Lanchvali and Lagami to the northeast. Government-sponsored commercial enterprise development has seen Mestia’s central sq. Setis moedani restored, a rush of latest hotels, and therefore the construction of ski resorts and a little airdrome. Whereas you may not extremely feel you are exploring the remote Svaneti of legend here, it is a nice base for hiking and alternative activities that do take you into the remainder of the region, wherever in such a big amount of places time extremely has stood still.


Gelendzhik could be a Russian resort city on the sea. It’s celebrated for park, with lions, bears and a compartment. The town’s water parks feature water slides and wave pools. High Gelendzhik Bay, the mountaintop Olimbos Park includes Associate in Nursing amphitheatre and an outsized Ferris wheel. At the Gelendzhik native History depository, photos and artefacts document the area’s military and cultural history. The geographic area of Gelendzhik are noted for a series of waterfalls, Associate in Nursing outcrop of dolmens, 2 very true pine and juniper groves, and also the Sail Rock, placed seventeen kilometers (11 mi) from the town’s central space.

Gelendzhik has for several years, been one in every of the foremost widespread and recognized resorts within the Krasnodar Territory. This tiny resort city shares solely twenty five kilometres with Novorossiysk. Once Sochi and Anapa, Gelendzhik is taken into account the third preferred sea resort. It’s placed in a very unbelievably lovely area; the resort settled in a picturesque bay. The bay is delimited by 2 capes – thick on the side and skinny, severally, on the northern. The exact same bay is fringed by the formidable mountain chain. The resort enjoys an implausible quality among beach lovers; conjointly several travelers with kids return here.

The Gelendzhik mound is that the longest within the world; it’s one in every of the most attractions of the resort. The mound stretches from one cape to the other; its length is eight kilometers. On the sea coast it’s no equal. The charming harbor remains the busiest place of the resort and a favourite playground for fans of hiking. On the harbor area unit the foremost widespread beaches, wherever you’ll be able to well sunbath and swim. In Gelenjik, there’s the fantastic Dolphinarium that’s one in every of the foremost visited recreation centers among tourists with kids. Here, you’ll be able to watch performances with dolphins, white whales, walruses, and ocean bears.

The middle is very fascinating with the actual fact that performances typically involve tiny dolphins. The guests have a chance to swim with a friendly ocean individual in one pool and take glorious unforgettable photos. It’ll be terribly fascinating for admirers of contemporary art to go to the most picture gallery within the town referred to as The White Horse. This gallery is exclusive in its own method as a result of all the masterpieces given here area unit manufactured from garbage. The gallery was opened in 2014 once a replacement ecological competition. Completely all exhibits given within the depository were created by kids living in several cities of Russia and country. Near it, there’s the native History depository, the gathering of that began to be fashioned over 100 years past.


Travelers United Nations agency have enjoyed the normal change of state of Mediterranean or Persian influence can notice some familiarities gift within the Caucasus: a bounty of recent manufacture, the harmony of savory and sweet at intervals meat and grain-based dishes, and a deep, non-secular love of bread – present, scented and essential. It ought to be noted that vegetarians, too, can do okay feeding throughout the region as an excess of dishes trust entirely on this garden of a land and its diversely grilled, stuffed, and preserved vegetables, alongside hearty breads, rice preparations, and every one manner of farm stemming from made, open-aired alpine pastures.


When Georgian food is observed in spoken communication, khachapuri is that the initial in line. This painting “Georgian pizza” may be a staple within the country and is best delineate as a cheese bread, however varies from region to region.


Made from a combination of red beans, cilantro, spices, fruit and alternative ingredients, this aromatic Georgian stew could be a staple within the native cooking.


Concentrated fruit crush (left over from the yearly wine harvest) should be poured repeatedly over strands of walnuts. Every layer is left to dry till a chewy, waxy exterior envelops the kookie. Jam-choked with macromolecule and sugar, churchkhela have even gone to war aboard the Georgian military that relied on them as a supply of shelf-stable nutrition.


Beautifully twisted knobs of dough, khinkali are generally full of meat and spices, then served poached or steamed.


This Armenian meat grill isn’t too dissimilar to a shish kebab, however it’s still one in every of the country’s most representative dishes. A typical khorovats are created with chunks of meat that’s grilled on a skewer, and sometimes created with bone still within the meat.


Dolma is Turkey’s national dish, and it signifies any type of vegetable full of a mix supported rice. For ancient dolma, grape leaves are full of rice and ground meat. Stuffed leaves were initial created at the court of King Khusrow II within the early seventh century.


This resembles a dish and not within the same was a khachapuri. A lahmajoon could be a circular piece of dough flat-topped with minced meat, typically lamb or brew, vegetables, herbs and tomatoes. This is often then baked and served up with juice.


There are a unit various versions of this dish however the mixture generally combines ingredients like minced meat, rice or wheat, varied herbs, seasonings, red pepper, paprika, ground sumac, or spaghetti sauce, whereas the standard wrapping sometimes includes vascular plant, cabbage, or dish leaves, or a spread of foliaged vegetables like cole and swiss chard.


Even though lahmacun is popularly nicknamed Turkish dish, that name does not extremely do justice to what this fresh, soggy treat lidded with spicy minced meat really represents. In Turkey, lahmacun is that the final street food and a favourite mealtime snack.


Azerbaijan’s national dish is named soyutma, which means long and slow-cooked meat. There are a unit 2 versions of the dish in Azerbaijani cooking – one is ready with lamb, the opposite one with chicken meat.


Plov is also a dish with origins in Central Asia, however it’s become a cookery staple in Asian country with many sorts. Here it’s conjointly known as “pilaff” and might contain just about something, from vegetables to meat, when way as eggs and fruit.


Baliq shish kebab, Azerbaijan Baliq may be a standard Azerbaijani shish kebab consisting of any firm, wealthy fish that’s marinated, skewered, and grilled. In Azerbajdzhan, ganoid from the Caspian Sea is that the most typical alternative for baliq.


Dovga may be a soup created by cookery yoghourt with a range of contemporary herbs like dill, mint, and coriander. It the national dish of Azerbajdzhan and may be served either cold within the summer as a refreshment, or heat within the winter


Lyulya kebab may be a distinctive kebab selection standard throughout the Caucasus region. It usually consists of ground lamb combined with finely shredded onions. The mixture is seasoned with salt and black pepper, then skewered and grilled.


The filling for “botishal” is created of curds and potatoes, and therefore the filling for “berkal” is created of potatoes and curds. Once one tastes a morsel of hot chudu, contemporary from the skillet, in “botishal” the cheese fibres stretch for one meter, whereas in “berkal” solely as so much as you are taking a bite.


Sort of pie, created in Dagestan with numerous fillings (meat, cheese, cheese, herbs, etc).


These delicious dumplings called khinkal square measure thought of to be one among the national dishes of the country. The dumplings square measure full of meat and spices, then historically twisted into a knot at the highest.


Kurze square measure very little, braided, meat-filled dumplings, associated square measure maybe an influence that return from Dagestan. Once done right, these dumplings have a light-weight and soft-doughy shell and a juicy, melt-in-your-mouth meat filling.


This dish is precisely what the name suggests: meat and noodles. To organize it, you need to boil meal and create home-brewed noodles. The meat is something. You’ll be able to use lamb, beef, goat, chicken, etc.


This dish is created from a milk primarily based dough that’s rolled into skinny pancakes, smothered in pumpkin, fried, and so “washed” in water to confirm that they keep toothsome and damp.


This is ready rather like the pumpkin pancakes from heaven, however rather than having pumpkin unfold inside them, they need onion and tvorog (a Russian dairy farm product) rolled into the dough before cooking and laundry.


This is the simplest dish within the entire world. You taking you’re taking and cream and blend it along. Add salt for style. When you have got this dipping sauce, you’ll dip vegetables or Uzbek bread into it for a satisfying snack.